Arthritis eBook; Chapter 1, What is Arthritis

WHAT IS ARTHRITIS

Chapter 1; Introduction

Arthritis is a term coined from two Greek words, athro (joint) and itis (inflammation). It is a condition whose main presenting symptoms are pain (arthralgia), stiffness and swelling in the joints. Arthritis can affect only one joint (mono articular) or many joints (poly articular) in a person.

The presence of pain and swelling in a joint is a manifestation of an underlying condition.

Prevalence of arthritis

The prevalence of arthritis may vary from country to country. It is hard to come up with definite figures but various studies have provided estimates. An estimated 40 million Americans had arthritis and the number is expected to increase to 59.4 million by the year 2020 (18% increase). This is just an example and figures vary with country.

Lear...

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Synovial Fluid White Cell Count in Knee Osteoarthritis: Association with Structural Findings and Treatment Response

Abstract

Objectives: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease with a significant inflammatory component. The aim of this analysis was to determine the relationship between synovial fluid white cell count (SF WCC) and two parameters: disease severity and the reduction in knee pain after intra-articular steroid injection.

Methods: Subjects with painful knee OA were recruited for participation in an open label study of intra-articular steroid therapy. Information was obtained about knee pain using the KOOS questionnaire and a proportion of subjects had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed. Prior to injection with methylprednisolone acetate (80mg), the index knee joint was aspirated and the fluid obtained forwarded for assessment of SF WCC.

Results: Information on SF WCC was available in 55...

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Flesh-eating infections in rheumatoid arthritis patients spur new discovery

Rheumatoid arthritis patients taking medications that inhibit interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), a molecule that stimulates the immune system, are 300 times more likely to experience invasive Group A…
Arthritis / Rheumatology News From Medical News Today

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Epigenetics in Systemic Sclerosis

Arthritis & Rheumatology

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Download the Full September 2016 Issue PDF

There are inherent difficulties in studying any treatments for osteoarthritis. First is the placebo effect. Some people will get better even when given an inactive treatment simply because they believe it will work.It is also tricky to evaluate any treatment for osteoarthritis because symptoms do not always steadily worsen. Instead, pain tends to come and go. It may not be clearly evident whether an improvement was the result of a treatment or the natural ebbing and flowing of symptoms.

Arthritis Advisor

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Anti-Carbamylated Protein Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis, First-Degree Relatives and Controls: Comparison to Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies- Reply to letter to the editor from Hutchinson and colleagues

Abstract

Hutchinson and colleagues in their Letter to the Editor propose a novel hypothesis in which modified-misfolded proteins such as immunoglobulin, in the setting of a permissive genetic background, might be a common link for the three autoantibody systems in RA;(Rheumatoid Factor (RF), Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, (ACPA) and anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (antiCarP). We discuss other potential antigenic targets and pathways to the production of these antibodies in RA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Arthritis & Rheumatology

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Effects of the Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension (DASH) Diet and Sodium Intake on Serum Uric Acid

Abstract

Objective: Randomized trial data guiding dietary recommendations to lower serum uric acid (SUA), the etiologic precursor of gout, are scarce. We examined the effects of the DASH diet (a well-established diet that lowers blood pressure) and levels of sodium intake, on SUA.

Methods: We conducted an ancillary study of a randomized, crossover feeding trial in 103 adults with pre- or stage 1 hypertension. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the DASH diet or a control diet (typical of the average American diet) and were further fed low, medium, and high sodium levels for 30 days each in random order. Body weight was kept constant. SUA was measured at baseline and following each feeding period.

Results: Trial participants were 55% women and 75% black with a mean ag...

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Acupuncture for Pain Relief

For people with chronic pain from arthritis and other conditions that affect joints, no magic bullet will take away pain. Getting relief from pain, and improving your ability to function, depends on a multipronged approach that may include physical therapy, weight loss, bracing, pain medications, supplements, assistive devices and, increasingly, acupuncture.

Arthritis Advisor

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Are rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated, and anti-carbamylated protein antibodies linked by post-translational modification of IgG?

Arthritis & Rheumatology

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In the News: September 2016

People with rheumatoid arthritis who are obese (BMI of 30 or more) are less likely to achieve remission than people of normal weight, according to a study published in Arthritis Care & Research (May 2016). The biologic drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis often make it possible to achieve remission, which means having few or no symptoms. The researchers pooled results from 20 studies and found that people who were obese were 43 percent less likely to achieve remission and 51 percent less likely to achieve sustained remission than people who were not obese.

Arthritis Advisor

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Benefits of Weight-Loss Surgery for Arthritis

The exact cause of osteoarthritis remains unknown, but it is linked to several factors, including being overweight. Osteoarthritis occurs when cartilage, the cushioning material that covers the ends of bones at joints, deteriorates. The joint space narrows and bone can rub on bone, causing pain. Excess weight places added stress on weight-bearing joints (like the hips and knees), possibly accelerating the breakdown of cartilage. Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat.

Arthritis Advisor

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